Graphene‐Oxide‐Conjugated Polymer Hybrid Materials for Calmodulin Sensing by Using FRET Strategy

Hongbo Yuan, Junjie Qi, Chengfen Xing, Hailong An, Ruimin Niu, Yong Zhan, Yibing Fan, Wenmin Yan, Ruihua Li, Bing Wang, Shu Wang (see publication in Journal )


The conformation of calmodulin (CaM) changes from closed configuration to open one, converting to a claviform dumbbell‐shaped biomolecule upon Ca2+‐binding. A hybrid probe of graphene oxide (GO) cationic conjugated polymer for detection of the conformation transition of CaM by using FRET technique is demonstrated. The stronger hydrophobic interaction and weaker electrostatic repulsion leads to more CaM adsorption to the surface of GO upon binding with Ca2+ than that of CaM in the absence of Ca2+ (apoCaM), resulting in much farther proximity between poly[(9,9‐bis(6′‐N,N,N‐trimethy­lammonium)hexyl)‐fluorenylene phenylene dibromide] (PFP) and green fluorescent protein labeled at the N‐terminus of CaM and therefore much weaker FRET efficiency for PFP/Ca2+/CaM in comparison with that of PFP/apoCaM in the presence of GO. Notably, the assembly of CaM with GO is quantitatively and reversibly controlled by Ca2+ ions.